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X-Pulse Sequences

Pulse Sequences

The X-Pulse Broadband Benchtop NMR Spectrometer will perform a wide range of NMR pulse sequences, making full use of the pulsed field gradients and shaped pulses which come as standard. A selection of those included in SpinFlow 3 is detailed belowthough there are many more available by default, and even more on request for no additional cost. All of these sequences are scripted in Python, giving the opportunity for the advanced user to develop their own sequences to run on the X-Pulse. 


The standard one-dimensional NMR spectrum is available on the X-Pulse for all supported nuclei, with the sequence performed with or without decoupling. 

More advanced pulse sequences allow for additional information to be obtained (beyond the chemical shift, integrated areas, and J-coupling constants obtained from the standard experiment), allowing for the optimal NMR experiments to be used for individual applications.

Distortionless Enhancement by Polarisation Transfer (DEPT)

Pulsed field Gradient Spin-Echo (PGSE)

Inversion Recovery (InvRec)

Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG)


In a one-dimensional NMR spectrum, a single frequency (chemical shift) axis is plotted against intensity; in a two-dimensional spectrum there are generally two frequency axes with the intensity plotted as a contour plot. The majority of two-dimensional NMR spectra can be considered to be correlation spectra, where the peaks in the two-dimensional spectrum correspond to interactions (such as through J-couplings) between the different signals observed in the corresponding one-dimensional spectra. By convention, the relevant one dimensional spectra are usually shown alongside the two-dimensional spectrum. 

Whenever possible, two-dimensional correlation spectra obtained on the X-Pulse are obtained in a gradient-selective mode, this ensures that the best possible spectra can be obtained in the shortest time possible.

Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY)

Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY)

Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC)

Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY)

Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence with Multiplicity Editing (HSQC-ME)

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